Gujarat Ane Bharat Ni Pratibhao
Gujarat Ane Bharat Ni Pratibhao
Gopal Krishna Gokhale 1866 – 1915 Gokhale was an early leader of the Indian National Congress. Gokhale maintained social and political reorganization which would give India greater autonomy. He was considered a moderate – working with British institutions and disparate more direct approaches to independence. Gokhale was an vital mentor to Gandhi.
Mahatma Gandhi (1869 – 1948) The foremost political leader of the Indian independence movement. For over two decades, Gandhi led a nonviolent independence movement, characterised by non-violent protests, such as boycotts and the Salt March. He commanded respect from both Hindus and Muslim, but, despite looking for a united India, was unable to avoid the partition of 1947. He was killed by a Hindu fanatic in 1948.
Sri Aurobindo (1872 – 1950) One of the key figures in the early Indian Independence movement, Aurobindo started early efforts at full independence and was sympathetic to armed resistance. After his retreat to a spiritual ashram, he rarely spoke on political matters apart from in 1942, where he urged Congress and Gandhi to accept the Cripps application to give Indian Dominion status. Sri Aurobindo became a noted philosopher, poet and Spiritual Teacher.
Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) – Nehru was an powerful nationalist from the 1910s. With the support of Gandhi, he came to lead Congress, moving the party to the left and seeking a united independent India. After Congress was politically reduced after the British crackdown on the ‘Quit India’ movement of 1942, Congress was unable to prevent the partition of India. Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India.
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945) Indian nationalist leader. Netaji raised a joint Indian army (INA) of all religious faiths in an attempt to gain independence for India through military means.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 – 1920) Prominent early leader of the Indian nationalist cause. Tilak was an early advocate of Swaraj and was imprisoned for sedition. Despite his fundamental stance, Gandhi saw Tilak as one of his political mentors.
Bipin Chandra Pal (1858–1932) One of the early Indian nationalist leaders, who like Lala Rai and Tilak, proposed direct action to protect Indian freedom.
Lala Lajpat Rai (1865 – 1928) Punjabi author and politician, Lal was a front-runner of the Indian independence movement. Lal expired after sustaining injuries in a protest against British rule. This led to major marches across India.
Chitta Ranjan Das (1870-1925) Lawyer and politician – Das characterized Sri Aurobindo at the Alipore bomb provisional and created the Bengali Swaraj ‘Independence’ Party in Bengal.
Surya Sen (1894 – 1934) Surya Sen was an Indian revolutionary who was nominated President of the Chittagong Indian National Congress.
In 1930, he led a group of revolutionaries in the Chittagong Armoury raid, and three years later was arrested and executed.
Bhagat Singh (1907 – 1931) Singh was a leader of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Born a Sikh he became influenced by Marxist and Anarchist philosophies and was committed to gaining independence for India, through strength if necessary. He was executed in 1931 for his part in killing a British officer.
Women in the Independence movement
Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949) Influential Indian author and poet. Also Indian independence activist and poet.
Sister Nivedita (1867 – 1911) Born in Ireland, Sister Nivedita moved to India after meeting Swami Vivekananda in London, 1895. In India, she was involved in social work and the source of Indian independence.
Annie Besant (1847 – 1933) Besant came to India because of her interest in Theosophy. She also campaigned for Indian independence and for a year was the leader of the fledgeling Indian National Congress in 1917.
Matangini Hazra (1870 – 1942) Hazra popularly known as “Gandhi Buri” was an Indian campaigner shot lifeless by the British Indian police in 1942. Hazra played a long role in the Indian independence movement. In 1942 the Quit India movement sought to take a police station in Midnapore district when she was shot carrying an Indian flag.
People of the Indian Renaissance
Raja Rammohun Roy (1772 – 1833) Considered the father of the Indian Revitalization for his attempts to promote reorganization and also protect Indian rights. He helped to found the significant Brahmo Samaj which was a reforming Hindu organisation dedicated to both modernisations and also promoting Hindu values.
Sri Ramakrishna (1836 – 1886) An illiterate mystic. Ramakrishna stimulated many dominant people in both India and the West. His spiritual sadhana offered a synthesis of all the main religious and spiritual strands.
Sri Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858 – 1937) Bengali polymath. Bose took an awareness in a wide range of sciences. He made donations to plant physiology, microwave optics and radio waves. Bose was part of the Indian scientific reawakening.
Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) The Seer-Poet of modern India. Tagore was the first Indian to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Tagore was leading in creating a new genre of songs and wrote the national anthem adopted by both India and later Bangladesh.
Swami Vivekananda (1863 – 1902 ) – Vivekananda played an important role in stimulating pride in India and Hinduism as a source of universal tolerance. Many leaders recognized their debt to Vivekananda for his inspiration, dynamism and motivation to uplift India – both materially and spiritually.
Dwijendra Lal Roy (1863 – 1913) – Bengali poet and playwright. Wrote over 500 Bengali songs. Persuasive Indian nationalist, who opposed the partition of Bengal, and helped to raise the political awareness of Bengal.
Kazi Nazrul Islam (1899 – 1976) Bengali poet, writer, musician and revolutionary. Islam was a loyal revolutionary often jailed for his protests against British rule. Also, a noted originator and considered National Poet of Bangladesh.
Founding Fathers of India (Gujarat Ane Bharat Ni Pratibhao)
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (1838 – 1894) Bengali poet, author and journalist. Bankim composed Vande Mataram – which became the national song of India and played a key role in the Indian nationalist movement.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875 – 1950) Indian barrister and politician. Patel was a leading figure in the leadership of the Indian Congress and played a leading role in the Independence struggle. He was deputy Prime Minister 1947-50 and is considered one of India’s founding fathers for helping to participate the Indian states after independence.
Dr S. Radhakrishnan (1888 – 1975) Radhakrishnan was the primary philosopher of modern Indian thought. He defended Hinduism and wanted to make it relevant to the modern age. 2nd President of India.
Dr B.R. Ambedkar (1891 – 1956) – Political activist and social reformer who campaigned for greater impartiality for ‘untouchable castes’ and women. Ambedkar played a significant role in drafting the Indian constitution.
President R Venkataraman (1910 – 2009) Indian lawyer, Indian independence innovative and Eighth President of India.
Famous Indian spiritual and religious figures
Lord Buddha (c 560BC – c 460BC) – Founder of Buddhism. Gave up the comforts of being a Prince in a palace to pursue enlightenment in the forests. After gaining the experience of Nirvana, Lord Buddha spent many years travelling India teaching his philosophy of enlightenment and harmony.
Sri Krishna – The hero of India’s classic – the Bhagavad Gita. It was Sri Krishna who taught to Arjuna the inspiring philosophy of yoga contained in the Gita. It was Sri Krishna who brought religion and holiness to everyone. Sri Krishna also developed a new path of yoga – bhakti yoga, the yoga of devotion.
Arjuna was one of the greatest warriors of his age and a key figure in the Mahabharata. He was absorbed by Sri Krishna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra.
Sri Ramachandra considered the seventh Avatar of Vishnu. Rama’s life is held as an example of the perfect dedication to dharma. His life and teachings are united in the Ramayana, which tells of his exploits and adventures against the demon Ravana.
Adi Shankara (9th Century AD) Shankaracharya was a noted spiritual teacher and philosopher. He spread a philosophy of Advaita Vedanta, which strains the underlying unity of creation. He also founded the Dashanami simple order
Guru Nanak (1469-1539) Spiritual Guru and founder of Sikhism. Nanak was born in a Hindu family but taught God was beyond religious difference and sought to teach that God was in all.
Sri Chaitanya (1486–1534) a devotee of Lord Krishna. Chaitanya fortified the ‘bhakti’ movement of devotional yoga
Mirabai (c. 1498 – c. 1557) A Hindu princess who forsook Royal freedoms to become a saint and devote her life to Lord Krishna. She composed many devotional bhajans.
Famous Indian Movie personalities (Gujarat Ane Bharat Ni Pratibhao)
Satyajit Ray (1921-1992) Author, film director, producer, illustrator and film critic. Ray has won many awards for his original and unique biopics and films, including Pather Panchali (1955)
Amitabh Bachchan (1942 – ) Bachchan is considered the most powerful Indian actor of all time, becoming the dominant personality of Indian film during the 1970s and 80s. He has received numerous awards and a record 39 nominations for Filmfare awards.
Priyanka Chopra (1982 – ) Indian film actress and singer. She is one of the highest paid actresses in Bollywood, and in 2000 won the Miss World Competition.
Shah Rukh Khan (1965 – ) Indian actor, film producer and media celebrity. Khan is known as the ‘King of Bollywood’, featuring in over 80 films and gaining numerous Bollywood accolades. 2008 Newsweek branded him one of most 50 influential people.
Kareena Kapoor (1980 – ) Kapoor is a versatile Indian actress. She has appeared in a variety of films from crime to sci-fi and war drama. She has received 6 Filmfare awards. Also created her own fashion design company.
Salman Khan (1965 – ) Leading Bollywood actor. Khan has appeared in many of the highest earning Hindi films of the modern era. Also, works as a producer and philanthropic pursuits.
Famous Indian literature figures
Kalidasa (4th – 5th Century AD) Classical poet. Kalidasa is considered the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language.
Dwijendra Lal Roy (1863 – 1913) – Bengali poet and playwright. Wrote over 500 Bengali songs. Influential Indian nationalist, who opposed the partition of Bengal. Also disapproved treatment of women by Hindu orthodoxy.
Amartya Sen (1933- ) an Indian economist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for economics in 1988. He has worked on social excellent theory and subsidized to the field of development economics.
Muhammad Yunus (1940 – ) Nobel Peace Prize 2006 for his work on Micro-lending and helping people, especially women to escape lack through creating small business.
Ali Akbar Khan (1922-2009) – Sarod Player. Khan promoted Indian classical music in the West and often played with Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar (1920 – 2012) – Sitar player. Shankar was a sitar expert and composer. He played all around the world and helped to popularize Indian classical music in the west.
Famous Indian Scientists
Aryabhata (c. 476 – c. 550) Indian mathematician and astronomer born Assaka. Aryabhata was powerful in the development of trigonometry. In astronomy, he made correct explanations of lunar eclipses’ and the circumference of the earth. His great works include: Āryabhaṭīya and the Arya-Siddhanta
Satyendra Nath Bose (1894 – 1974) Indian physicist who worked on quantum mechanics. Cooperated with A.Einstein to found Bose-Einstein figures and Bose-Einstein condensate.
Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray (1861 – 1944) Bengali chemist, education activist and inventor of Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals.
Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887 – 1920) Self-taught mathematician born in Erode. Ramanujan developed highly original and understanding theorems in number theory, infinite series and continued fractions, which were often proved many years after his death.
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888 – 1970) – Nobel Prize Physics 1930 for his work on light scattering and wavelength.
Famous Indian sport stars
Sachin Tendulkar (1973 – ) One of the world’s greatest ever test batsmen. Tendulkar scored over 30,000 runs in international cricket and set many records. He won the cricket World Cup with India in 2011.
Dhyan Chand (1905 – 1979) (India, hockey) Chand is considered the greatest field hockey player of all time. He won three Olympic gold medals with India ’28, ’32 and ’36.
Sania Mirza (1986 – ) (India, tennis) Mirza is India’s highest ranking female tennis player (reaching #27 in singles rankings and #5 in doubles ranking. She won two gold in varied doubles at the Asian games and has a high profile in her home country.
Mahendra Doni (1981 – ) Indian cricketer and captain. Led India to extraordinary international success – winning the World Cup, Champions Trophy, World Twenty20 and no. 1 Test team
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