Principal parts of a verb
Principal parts of a verb
Verbs are used to express an action or a state of being. Those that are not auxiliary verbs have four principal parts: present tense (or infinitive), present participle, past tense, and past participle.
The base form of the verb, which is the simple form of the verb
(the infinitive without to) and the form that is found in a dictionary are used
to create all forms of verbs, especially verb tenses, often with the use of helping verbs or auxiliary verbs.
The four basic forms can be shown as follow:
|Present participle||Past tense||Past participle|
|cook||I cook.||I am cooking||I cooked.||I have cooked.|
|arrive||He arrives.||He is arriving.||He arrived.||He has arrived.|
|break||She breaks (eggs into the bowl).||She is breaking (eggs into the bowl).||She broke (eggs into the bowl).||She has broken (eggs into the bowl).|
|cut||They cut (down trees)||They are cutting (down trees)||They cut (down trees)||They have cut (down trees)|
Present tense – The present tense of a verb is its base form
(cook, arrive, break, cut) or sometimes called its infinitive. The present form is used to describe an action that is continuing or happening at present or an event that is still in progress (is watching / are competing [for the final]). The present tense verbs are also used for the future tense with helping verbs, such as will: will cook / will arrive / will break / will cut.
Present participle – The present participle of all the verbs ends in –ing: cooking / arriving / breaking / cutting. It combines with a helping verb to form the six continuous tenses to show continuous actions: present continuous (is running), past continuous (was cleaning), future continuous (will be visiting), present perfect continuous (have been writing),
past perfect continuous (had been making), and future perfect continuous (will have been waiting).
Past tense – The past tense is used to express a completed action, an activity,
or a state of being in the past at the time of speaking or writing. The basic form of past tense is the simple past tense. The simple past tense of regular verbs is formed by adding to the end of the verbs the suffix –ed (kick/kicked; lick/licked; play/played) or –d (bake/baked; care/cared; promise/promised).
Irregular verbs do not follow this pattern when forming their past tense (buy/bought; cut/cut; hold/held; say/said),
and learners are required to memorize them. The same form of the simple past tense is used for
the first, second, and third persons,
as well as singular and plural verbs (I/you/he, she, it/we/you/they saw).
Past participle – The past participle is used to show a past action or
an action that started in the past and continues to the present. The past participle of a regular verb typically ends in –ed or –d: cook/cooked; arrive/arrived, and of an irregular verb, the verb takes on a different spelling or the spelling remains the same: break/broke; cut/cut.
The past participle is also used with a helping verb in forming perfect tenses:
present perfect (has treated),
past perfect (had treated), and future perfect (will be treated),
and the passive tense (is treated).