Lesson 17 – Clauses

Lesson 17 – Clauses

Lesson 17 – Clauses

Lesson 17 - Clauses

The different clauses

Independent Clause / Main Clause

Dependent Clause / Subordinate Clause

Adverbial Clause

Noun Clause

Relative Clause / Adjective Clause

Finite and Nonfinite Clauses

Restrictive (or defining) and Non-restrictive (or non-defining) Relative Clauses

That-Clause

A clause is a group of words that must contain a subject and a finite verb. Besides the subject and verb which can be a verb phrase, it can also have an object or a complement. The clause can be a simple sentence (independent clause or main clause) or part of a sentence (dependent clause). The dependent clause is also called a subordinate clause.

Examples:
  • I miss her.

(Subject: I; verb: miss; direct object: her)

  • Are you going home?

(Subject: You; verb phrase: are going; complement: home)

  • She is a fortune-teller.

(Subject: She; linking verb: is; complement: a fortune-teller)

More on the parts that make up a clause

A clause can have two parts or several parts

Two parts: He (subject) has left (verb phrase).

Several parts: Our (possessive determiner) tour guide (subject) showed (verb) us (object) around the old town (prepositional phrase) briefly (adverb) this morning (adverbial phrase).

Some of the parts may be single words or more than single words.

More examples of the different elements that combine to make up a clause are shown in this table. The different elements are subject, verb, indirect object, direct object, complement, and adverbial.

Subject

Verb

Indirect object 

Direct object 

Complement

Adverbial

We walked.
Some guestshave left.
The robberscarried guns.
Time passes very slowly.
Theyare playing outside their house.
Bob gavehis doga biscuit.
The newsmade her angry.
Jane met her boyfriendat the tennis club.

 

 

 

Subject

Verb

Indirect object 

Direct object 

Complement

Adverbial

We 
Some guests
The robbers